A Theory of Entrepreneurial Opportunity Identification and Development.

Ardichvili, A., Cardozo, R., & Ray, S. (2003)

Journal of Business Venturing, 18: 105-123.

Social Enterprises as Incentive Structures: an Economic Analysis

Bacchiega, A. & Borzaga, C. (2001)

In The Emergence of Social Enterprise, Routledge, pp. 273-294.

Entrepreneurship in Nonprofit Organizations: Its Role in Theory and in the Real World Nonprofit Sector

Badelt, C. (2003)

In: H. Anheier and A. Ben-Ner (eds.) The Study of the Nonprofit Enterprise. New York: Kluwer Academc/Plenum Publishers, pp. 139-160

In: Entrepreneurship Theories of the Non-Profit Sector

Badelt, Ch. (1997)

In: Voluntas, vol. 8, no 2, pp. 162-178

Social Enterpreneurship as a Space for Intercultural Communication and Innovation

Bisbale, Lise (2006)

Intercultural City, UK

Cities are challenged by global competition, by demographic changes and by citizens representing a rich diversity of cultural backgrounds and histories. The question is how can cities respond to these challenges as globalisation changes the conditions for production under which innovation becomes the basis of productivity.
It requires a critical mass of creativity, talent, knowledge and the ability and skills to network and cooperate both locally and globally in order to create the power of innovation, which is key to fostering workplaces and social cohesion in the future. Cities need to find ways of activating resources. Culture as a resource can be creatively tapped to generate human and social capital. In this new economy, values such as social responsibility, solidarity and social cohesion will become just as important factors as the levels of wages and taxes for attracting a talented workforce. Whilst the most obvious location for intercultural exchange and innovation is in the high tech industry and academia appealing to highlyskilled and well-connected people, the field of social entrepreneurship also provides many opportunities for economic, social and cultural innovation.

How to Change the World: Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New Ideas

Bornstein, David (2007)

Oxford University Press US

Now published in more than twenty countries, this book has become the bible for social entrepreneurship-in which men and women around the world are finding innovative solutions to a wide variety of social and economic problems. Whether delivering solar energy to Brazilian villagers, expanding work opportunities for disabled people across India, creating a network of home-care agencies to serve poor people with AIDS in South Africa, or bridging the college-access gap in the United States, social entrepreneurs are pioneering problem-solving models that will reshape the 21st century. The book provides vivid profiles of many such individuals and what they have in common. The book is an In Search of Excellence for social initiatives, intertwining personal stories, anecdotes, and analysis. Readers will discover how one person can make an astonishing difference in the world.

Social Economy in Transition Economies: Realities and Perspectives

Borzaga, C. & Galera, G. (2004)

Discussion Paper presented at the First Meeting of the Scientific Group on Social Economy and Social Innovation of the OECD Centre for Local Development, Trento, Italy

The Emergence of Social Enterprise

Borzaga, Carlo & Defourny, Jacques (2001)Routledge, London

The Economics of the Third Sector In Europe: The Italian Experience

Borzaga, C. (1997)

Department of Economics, University of Trento

Social Entrepreneurship: The Art of Mission-Based Venture Development

Brinckerhoff, Peter. (2000)

The skilled social entrepreneur has the ability to get the most mission out of the resources at hand including traditional business techniques. The book gives tips on how successful social entrepreneurs: focus on community wants and need; match those with core competencies to provide the quality services; assess risk and gauge opportunity; develop new project ideas and test their feasibility; write a business plan; project finances in the plan; tap into new sources of funding; develop the idea of social entrepreneurship throughout the organization; make sure that mission, not money, is the bottom line.
Also included are the seven essential steps of the not-for-profit business development process, real-world case studies, sample business plans, and a self-assessment process to determine if your organization is ready for social entrepreneurism. In addition to entrepreneurs, middle managers, policy setters, volunteers, and a host of other important staff members will get value from the mission-beneficial information in this book.

Social Entrepreneurship - False Premises and Dangerous Forebodings

Cook, Beth, Dodds, Chris & Mitchell, William. (2003)

In: Australian Journal Of Social Issues Vol. 38 No. 1, February 2003

Strategic Tools for Social Entrepreneurs - Enhancing the Performance of Your Enterprising Non-profit

Dees, J. Gregory; Emerson, Jed & Economy, Peter (2002)

Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

Enterprising Nonprofits: A Toolkit for Social Entrepreneurs

Dees, J. Gregory; Emerson, Jed & Economy, Peter (2001)

John Wiley & Sons

A hands-on resource that shows nonprofits how to adopt entrepreneurial behaviors and techniques. Written by the leading thinkers and practitioners in the field, Enterprising Nonprofits offers concise and engaging explanations of the most successful business tools being used by nonprofits today. With this book, you’ll learn how to use practical business techniques to dramatically improve the performance of your nonprofit.

From Third Sector to Social Enterprise. In: The Emergence of Social Enterprise

Defourny, J. (Borzaga, C. and Defourny, J., eds)

Routledge, pp. 1-28

Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Drucker, Peter F. (1985)

New York. Harper & Row, publishers

Opportunities and Entrepreneurship

Eckhardt, J. T., & Shane, S. A. (2003)

Journal of Management, 29(3): 333-349
New Social Entrepreneurs: The Success, Challenge and Lessons of Non-Profit Enterprise Creation

Emerson, Jed & Fay Twerksy, eds. (1996)

San Francisco, The Roberts Foundation, Homeless Economic Development Fund

Enterprising Nonprofits: A Toolkit for Social Entrepreneurs

Emerson, Jed & Economy, Peter (2001)

John Wiley and Sons

The rising spirit of social entrepreneurship has created all kinds of new opportunities for nonprofit organizations. But at the same time, many are discovering more than their share of challenges as well. This essential book will help anyone in the field gain the necessary skills to meet these challenges. Written by the leading thinkers and practitioners in the field, Enterprising Nonprofits offers concise and engaging explanations of the most successful business tools being used by nonprofits today. The authors clearly describe all the concepts so you'll be able to embrace the methods of social enterprise for your organization. With this book, you'll learn how to use practical business techniques to dramatically improve the performance of your nonprofit.

The Emergence of Social Enterprises. A New Answer to Social Exclusion in Europe

EMES Network (1997, 1998, 1999)

Semestrial Progress Reports to the European Commission

Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector

Jane Wei-Skillern, James Austin, Herman (2007)

Sage Publications

Written for students and practitioners of social entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector, is about the opportunity and challenge of applying leadership skills and entrepreneurial talents creatively and appropriately to create social value. The objective of this book is to enable readers to develop an in depth understanding of the distinctive characteristics of the social enterprise context and organizations and to develop knowledge and tools that will enable them to pursue social entrepreneurship more strategically to achieve mission impact more efficiently, effectively, and sustainably. This unique inter-disciplinary casebook provides students, instructors and practitioners with detailed analysis, frameworks, and Harvard Business School case studies for achieving maximum impact through social entrepreneurship.

Entrepreneurial Discovery and the Competitive Market Process: An Austrian Approach

Kirzner, I. M. (1997)

Journal of Economic Literature, 35(1): 60-85

Ethnic entrepreneurship as innovation’ in Chamberlayne Prue

Kupferberg Feiwel (2004)

Joanne Bornat and Ursula Apitzsch eds. Biographical Methods and Professional Practice. Policy Press, Bristol

New European Socio-Economic Perspective

Laville, Jean Louise

In : Review of Social Economy, Vol. LXI No: 3, September 2003

This article seeks to analyze the links between the re-emergence of a civil and solidarity-based economy to the evolution of new forms of public commitment and the changing structures of productive activities in France. It further argues for a theoretical perspective that provides an analytical framework for a more comprehensive approach to the empirical complexity of social economic considerations consisting of three economic spheres: the for-profit economy, the public sector economy and the generally locally based non-monetary reciprocity based economy.

Virtuous Capital: What Foundations Can Learn from Venture Capitalists

Letts, C. W., Ryan, W., & Grossman, A. (1997)

Harvard Business Review, 75(2), pp 36-44

Social Entrepreneurship Research: A Source of Explanation, Prediction, and Delight

Mair, J., & Marti, I. (2005)

IESE Business School, University of Navarra, Barcelona

This exploratory study on one social entrepreneur challenges existing knowledge on the intention formation process of entrepreneurship. Drawing from social and cognitive psychology, we adapt an intention-based model from entrepreneurship and translate it to social entrepreneurship. Building on our findings, we argue that social entrepreneurs - like traditional entrepreneurs - experience perceptions of feasibility and desirability, and a propensity to act. However, complementing research on traditional entrepreneurs, we suggest that, in a preceding stage, social entrepreneurs develop social sentiments. Furthermore, we identify willpower, support, and the construction of opportunity as important antecedents of perceptions of feasibility and desirability, and propensity to act.

The New Social Entrepreneurship: What Awaits Social Entrepreneurial Ventures?

Perrini, Francesco (2006)

Edwin Elgar Publishing Ltd.

This book aims to define what Social Entrepreneurship actually is and what it is not. The author adopts a novel approach to the social entrepreneurship phenomenon, considering it as a dynamic process created and managed by innovative social entrepreneurs striving to create new social values in the market and community at large.

Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Contemporary Sociology

Portes Alejandro

In: Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 1998, 1-24

The Voice of Social Innovation – Outstanding Social Enterprises

Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship (2005)

Social Entrepreneurship

2006 - edited by Johanna Mair, Jeffrey Robinson, and Kai Hockerts


Social Entrepreneurship is the first to stir up serious debate in the field by examining what researchers around the world have written about social entrepreneurship - and what should be next on the agenda. It offers a selection of the best papers presented at the inaugural International Social Entrepreneurship Research Conference in Barcelona, 2005 and contains contributions from scholars in Europe, North America and South America. The breadth of opinion is important as social entrepreneurship is a global phenomenon.

The Nonprofit Entrepreneur: Creating Ventures to Earn Income

Skloot, E. (1988)

The Foundation Center, New York

Social Enterprise: A Strategy for Success

2002 - Department of Trade and Industry, The British Government

Social enterprises tackle a wide range of social and environmental issues and operate in all parts of the economy. By using business solutions to achieve public good, the Government believes that social enterprises have a distinct and valuable role to play in helping create a strong, sustainable and socially inclusive economy. The aim of this strategy is to provide a more enabling environment, to help social enterprises become better businesses, and ensure that their value becomes better understood. The strategy identifies the issues which directly contribute to the success of the social enterprise sector; and, where necessary, seeks to remove the barriers that are preventing its growth and development.

The Practice of Social Entrepreneurship: Theory and the Swedish Experience

Stryjan, Yohan (1992)

The paper outlines a perspective on social entrepreneurship that is based on a Schumpeterian view of entrepreneurship as the creation of new combinations of resources, and focuses on the nature of actors engaging in the pursuit, and the nature of resources mobilized. So as to highlight less familiar aspects of social entrepreneurship, analysis is primarily illustrated by applications of a resource-based approach to the study of grassroots enterprising in Sweden. The presentation proceeds from rudimentary cases (that are organized around a single process of resource conversion) to more complex ones. Social entrepreneurship is viewed as a category of entrepreneurship that primarily (1) is engaged in by collective actors, and (2) involves, in a central role in the undertaking’s resource mix, socially embedded resources. Social entrepreneurship involves the tapping of socially embedded resources and their conversion into (market-) convertible resources, and vice-versa. In doing so, it spans the boundaries between
different property-rights regimes that define resources and their utilization. To ensure the undertaking’s (or enterprise’s) survival over time, it would also be expected to contribute to the replenishment of such resources, reconverting market resources into social capital, and reproducing the context that makes such transactions possible.

Entrepreneurial Start-up and Growth: A Classification of Problems

Terpstra, D. E., & Olson, P. D. (1993)

Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 17(3), pp. 5-19

Social Entrepreneurship: A New Look at the People and the Potential

Thompson, J., Alvy, G. and Lees, A. (2000)

In: Management Decision, No:35, pp.438-338

To Profit Or Not To Profit

Weisbrod (1998)

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

Casebook of Management for Nonprofit Organizations: Entrepreneurship and Organizational Change in the Human Services

Young, D. R. (1985)

Haworth Press

The Search for Social Entrepreneurship

Light, Paul (2008)

Brookings Institution Press

The book offers the most comprehensive overview to date of scholarly research on the topic: examines the challenges of defining social entrepreneurship, reviews his own and others’ past claims and assumptions about the phenomenon, and appeals for comparative analysis of successful and failed attempts at social change through entrepreneurial activity. The approach involves a combination of literature review and original research.
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